Sample requirements


LES personnel will help you determine the sample sizes needed to obtain the best possible results for your specific research projects. The following information provides general guidelines to be considered.

Quantity of sample needed for analysis

I. Stable isotope measurements - δ 13C, δ 18O, δ 15N, δ 34S, δ D – (‰)

Type of sample Minimum quantity Average quantity
Water (δ18O, δD) 0.2 l 0.5 l
NH4+ content of water δ15N) 1.5-2.5 mg/l NH4+ (3 l) 5 l
NO3- content of water ( δ15N) 6-11 mg/l NO3- (3 l) 5 l
Carbonate (δ13C) 10 mg 1 g
Organic material (δ13C, δ18O, δ15N, δ34S) 1 g 10 g
BaSO4  precipitate from sulphide δ34S) 10 mg 1 g
BaSO4 precipitate from sulphate (δ34S) 10 mg 1 g

II. Radiocarbon dating - 14C (*)

Type of sample Minimum quantity Average quantity
Charcoal, seeds, peat (air dryed) 3-6 g 25 g
Textile 6-50 g 100 g
Wood, charcoal (with humidity) 30-150 g 250 g
Soil, sediment 50-1500 g 2000 g
Bone 60-300 g 500 g
Carbonate, coral, dripstone 10-30 g 50 g
Surface water, groundwater 50 l 100 l

* The mass of the sample must be increased as much as tenfold if the sample has a high detrital mineral content, if it is highly contaminated with organic residues (e.g., humic acids or roots), or if it is poorly preserved (e.g., advanced decomposition of peat, weathered shells). In such cases the contamination must be removed or particular fractions must be extracted for analysis, often resulting in the loss of as much as 90% of the sample.


III. Radiochemical analysis
134Cs, 137Cs, 110mAg, 60Co

Type of sample Minimum quantity Average quantity
Evaporator concentrate 0.5 ml 10 ml
Used ion exchange resin 20 mg 1 g
Sludge 0.5 ml 10 ml
Primary water 0.5 ml 10 ml
Observation wells water 10 l 100 l
Geological materials 100 g 1000 g

129I, 36Cl, 99Tc

Type of sample Minimum quantity Average quantity
Evaporator concentrate 1 l 2 l
Used ion exchange resin 10 g 100 g
Sludge 1 l 2 l
Primary water 2 l 5 l
Observation wells water 50 l 100 l
Geological materials 100 g 1000 g

14C

Type of sample Minimum quantity Average quantity
Evaporator concentrate 50 ml 250 ml
Used ion exchange resin 1 g 5 g
Sludge 1 g 5 l
Primary water 100 ml 500 ml
Observation wells water 50 l 100 l
Geological materials 100 g 1000 g

T

Type of sample Minimum quantity Average quantity
Evaporator concentrate 1 ml 10 ml
Used ion exchange resin 30 mg 100 g
Sludge 30 mg 100 g
Primary water 1 ml 10 ml
Observation wells water 50 l 100 l
Geological materials 100 g 1000 g

63Ni, 59Ni

Type of sample Minimum quantity Average quantity
Evaporator concentrate 100 ml 250 ml
Used ion exchange resin 10 g 100 g
Sludge 10 g 100 g
Primary water 2 l 5 l
Observation wells water 50 l 100 l
Geological materials 100 g 1000 g

90Sr

Type of sample Minimum quantity Average quantity
Evaporator concentrate 1 l 2 l
Used ion exchange resin 100 g 1000 g
Sludge 100 g 1000 g
Primary water 2 l 5 l
Observation wells water 50 l 100 l
Geological materials 100 g 1000 g

85Kr

Type of sample Minimum quantity Average quantity
Primary water 0.5 l 2 l
Stack air 20 l 50 l

IV. Honey adulteration analysis

Type of sample Minimum quantity Average quantity
Honey 50 g 250 g

V. Tritium activity concentration with tritium ingrowth method

Type of sample Minimum quantity Average quantity
Water 1 l 3 l

VI. Water analysis

Type of sample Minimum quantity Average quantity
Water 2 l 3 l

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