August 2014

Science 13 June 2014: Vol. 344 no. 6189 pp. 1256-1258
DOI: 10.1126/science.1247715

Detecting nonlocality in many-body quantum states


J. Tura, R. Augusiak, A. B. Sainz, T. Vértesi, M. Lewenstein, A. Acín


Quantum mechanics is one of the most successful theories in the history of science. One of the mysteries is related to quantum nonlocality: separated parties sharing an entangled state are able to produce correlations which are unexplainable by any classical mechanism. These super-strong correlations have been experimentally tested via Bell inequalities several times demonstrating the striking fact that nature is inherently nonlocal. Moreover, these nonlocal correlations have turned into a powerful resource enabling perfectly secure quantum cryptography and may also prove essential in future quantum computers.

In recent years, important steps have been taken toward understanding the entanglement features of many-body quantum systems, such as ground states of composite systems with few-body interactions. However, there is a related problem, which has been hardly explored yet. That is, do many-body states display non-local behaviour? Beside practical applications of these super-strong correlations (e.g. in various quantum information protocols), they would also help to provide better understanding of the physics of many-body quantum systems.

Until now, the record is held by a recent experiment which could witness the nonlocality of 14 entangled ions, however, more complex scenarios are left completely unexplored. This is partly due to the fact that the known tools to detect nonlocality (primarily via Bell inequalities), involve correlations among many particles which are still out of reach of today's experimental technology.

In this study, multipartite Bell witnesses were constructed based on (the easiest-to-measure) two-body observables and these correlations were shown to be experimentally accessible by means of global spin measurements. Promising experimental implementations may include ultracold atoms or systems of atoms trapped in nanostructures. This work, then, may pave the



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